My Appearance on Chat with a Lawyer

I recently appeared on a local television show “Chat with a Lawyer.” I sat with the host Wala Blegay to discuss Intellectual Property law and protecting your business.  Please watch and enjoy!

 

 

 

If you are in the DC metro area the episode will continue to air on Channel 25 Verizon and Channel 71 Comcast twice a day starting this week!

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I have a Trademark, Now What?

Congratulations you’ve successfully secured a federally registered trademark for your business, blog, or creation!!!  

Go ahead and celebrate but remember this is not the end of your obligation. In addition to policing or searching for unauthorized use of the brand, you must maintain your trademark rights with the United States Patent & Trademark Office (USPTO). 

Trademarks require regular maintenance to continue to enjoy the use and protection of the mark. As the owner, you must complete and submit certain filings and fees with the USPTO at specified intervals.  Failing to submit these filings and fees will result in cancellation of the trademark by the USPTO. Additionally, there is an extra filing option that can further strengthen your protection. Knowledge of these intervals and timely adherence to the deadlines are a major part of maintaining a strong mark.

Required Maintenance Filings

All trademark maintenance filing deadlines are measured from the date that the mark was officially registered with the USPTO. There are two required filings, the Affidavit of Use and the Renewal Application.

Affidavit of Use – The USPTO requires the owners of registered trademarks to file an Affidavit of Use between five and six years after registration to prove continuous use of the mark in commerce.  After this initial filing, a trademark owner must submit an additional Affidavit of Use before the end of every ten year period.

Renewal Application – Additionally, at the end of every ten year period, a trademark owner must file a Renewal Application.

**Warning: If the Affidavit of Use and Renewal Applications are not filed in a timely manner, the registration will be cancelled.  Registrations that are cancelled because of a failure to file an Affidavit of Use and/or a Renewal Application cannot be revived or reinstated.

Timing: As you can see, the initial maintenance filings must be completed between the fifth and sixth years of registration and subsequent filings are completed once every ten years.

** Warning: All maintenance filings have a six month grace period where the filings may still be completed, but at a higher price.

Cost:  Renewal Applications are $400 per class. The additional fee for filing during the grace period is $100. Filing Affidavits are priced between $100 – $200. The additional fee for filing during the grace period is $100.These prices are subject to change so consult the USPTO.gov website for current pricing.

How to file:

  1. Visit the USPTO site and navigate to “Registration Maintenance/Renewal/Correction Forms”.
  2. Navigate to Declaration of Use and/or Excusable Nonuse of a Mark under Section 8 or Combined Declaration of Use and/or Excusable Nonuse/Application for Renewal under Sections 8 & 9 if you are filing both at the same concurrently.
  3. You must supply your registration number, then answer questions as to who is filing the declaration
  4. You must provide information as to the entity that owns the mark
  5. You must upload a specimen showing the mark as used in commerce
  6. You must execute the declaration as to whether the marks have been in continuous use on the same goods or services as originally declared when the applications was file. If not, you must supply the appropriate information.
  7. You must provide electronic signature
  8. You must pay for filing

Recommended Additional Filing

Declaration of Incontestability – This filing while not mandatory is extremely beneficial in defending and protecting your trademark rights.  A Declaration of Incontestability will make your mark’s registration conclusive evidence that the mark is valid, that you own the mark and that you as the owner have the exclusive right to use the registered mark with the goods or services on the registration in commerce.

Timing: A Declaration of Incontestability should be filed with the initial maintenance filings between the fifth and sixth years or as soon as you have five years of continuous use.

Cost: $300 per class. The additional fee for filing during the grace period is $100.

How to file:

  1. Visit the USPTO site and navigate to “Registration Maintenance/Renewal/Correction Forms”.
  2. Choose 2. Declaration of Incontestability of a Mark Under Section 15 (unless you plan on filing a combination declaration including Section 8).
  3. You must supply your registration number, then answer questions as to who is filing the declaration
  4. You must provide information as to the entity that owns the mark
  5. You must execute the declaration affirming incontestability (see above).
  6. You must provide electronic signature
  7. You must pay for filing.

Protect your investment and make sure you keep up with your maintenance fees! Consult an attorney for help with the filings.

 

They’re Lying! How to Combat Online Defamation

Has anyone ever posted false information about you or your company online? I don’t mean things you would prefer not to be out there but​ completely false and potentially damaging information. If you have you know how overwhelming it can seem to get this information down because it can so quickly “go viral” and often is unattributable. Luckily, there are steps you can take to get this information down.

First Line of Defense: Terms of Service
Most online service providers (OSPs)​ have Terms of Service (ToS) or Terms of Use (ToU) that govern the use of their website. Usually those terms prohibit the posting of defamatory material and include the OSP’s right to remove such content.  Even websites that offer consumers places to “vent” and post complaints about companies and individuals, such as RipOffReport.com and Complaints.com,  usually require that users post only information that is truthful and accurate.  Unfortunately, there is not validation process to confirm accuracy prior to posting.

If you identify false and potentially defamatory information about you or your company online, your first step is to check the site’s terms of service. If this is a violation of their terms of service, contact the OSP where the content is posted and notify them of the violation of their terms of service.  Many of the sites we frequent and use to promote our businesses have forms or contact emails designated for this purpose. At the end of this post you will find resources for reporting defamation on a few of the most popular social media sites.

The Content is on its own Website
If you identify potentially defamatory content on a website created but the poster they are not likely to have terms of service that you can use to make a case for removal. However, contact information is required when someone registers a website so you can often obtain the relevant contact information through a WhoIs search on a registrar website, such as whois.domaintools.com. Armed with this information you can work with an attorney to draft a cease and desist letter that will hopefully result in the removal of the content. Site owners do have the option for private registration so if they have elected this service this option is not feasible. Additionally, you should reserve this course of action for sites stood up by the poster because hosts, ISPs, and other OSPs are protected from litigation under the Communications Decency Act.

Dealing with Mr. Anonymous
If you are unable to identify the poster or are unable to get assistance from the OSP you still have legal recourse to get the content removed. Legal proceedings can be commenced against anonymous “John Doe” Internet users.  Once an action is filed, a subpoena can be served on the host website to obtain the Internet Protocol (“IP”) address of the perpetrator, as well as other personally identifiable information (“PII”). You can also subpoena the ISP that assigned the IP address to discover the perpetrator’s identity.

Beware of SLAPP
SLAPP stands for Strategic Lawsuit Against Public Participation, which essentially is a lawsuit filed against a defendant in retaliation for speaking out on a public issue or controversy in, for example, a blog or social media. The goal is to burden them with legal fees until they abandon their criticism. Over half of the states in the United States and District of Columbia have enacted “anti-SLAPP” legislation to protect an individual’s right to free speech and prevent such lawsuits.  “Public issues” include those involving celebrities, public officials and the financial solvency of large companies.

The defendant can use SLAPP to get the suit dismissed. If a defendant is able to demonstrate that the SLAPP action was brought merely for harassment purposes, he or she may file a “SLAPPback” lawsuit against the plaintiff.

If the potentially defamatory statement is not of public interest about a public issue, there really is no SLAPP concern.  Of course, if the subject statement truly is defamatory and all of the elements of a defamation claim are present, there really is no SLAPP concern either way. Make sure the content you seek removal for is truly defamatory if you elect to pursue a lawsuit or other legal action. 

Have you ever been the victim of defamatory content online? How did you handle it? Do you have any tips to add?

Content Removal Resources:

 

​**”Defamation” is a catch-all term for any statement that hurts someone’s reputation. Written defamation is called “libel,” and spoken defamation is called “slander.” Defamation is a legal conclusion that can only be made by a judge. ​

 

SCOTUS rules that police need a warrant to search cell phones

As we become more reliant on our devices, they collect more data on us, much of which is extremely private. Access to this data has been a point of contention for some time. The Supreme Court’s decision to hear Riley v. California presented an opportunity to draw clear boundary for police in the area of personal privacy.   Privacy groups have been advocating for requirements on how and when cell phone data can be accessed and used by the government since that decision. On June 25, 2014,the Supreme Court announced a win for personal privacy by deciding that a warrantless search of a suspect’s cellphone data incident to arrest is unconstitutional.

Case Highlights

  • “Modern cell phones are not just another technological convenience. With all they contain and all they may reveal, they hold for many Americans ‘the privacies of life.’”
  • The Court observed that modern phones are mini-computers that perform multiple functions and hold immense amount of personal data, and were themselves inconceivable when the Court had originally permitted police to search individuals incident to arrest.
  • The Court acknowledged that searching a cell phone can potentially expose more information to the government than a search of an individual’s house, given the amount of data typical phones can store. The fact “that technology now allows an individual to carry such information in his hand does not make the information any less worthy of . . . protection.”
  • The Court makes clear that “Privacy comes at a cost,” and that the warrant requirement is “an important working part of our machinery of government” that must be respected.
  • The Exception: Although the Court dismissed all of the arguments that were presented for justification of a warrantless search they did say that in “exigent” circumstances like prevention of a terrorist plot or finding a missing child, that police are able to proceed without a warrant. However, after such a warrantless seizure, a court would still have to “examine whether an emergency justified a warrantless search in each particular case.”

Bottom line

From now on, your phone should not be searched just because you have been arrested. Officers must have a warrant to search your phone, aside from a narrow exception.

What’s Next

This case will play a major role in the already contentious debate surrounding personal privacy. It will be interesting to hear how this changes the application of Fourth Amendment protections to searches and seizures of all computers.

Internet Updates June 2014

There is so much going on in the Internet space that I have compiled some of the most interesting happenings of June. They all link to more info. Please read, enjoy and let me know if you want me to expand on anything!

Are threats made on social media protected free speech, or potentially criminal actsThe U.S. Supreme Court has agreed to examine the constitutionality of a federal law making it a crime to transmit communications containing “any threat to injure the person of another.” In this case, the “threats” were in a series of Facebook postings.

Be careful what you post on Facebook, you might get a ticket for it… A woman in a Chicago suburb received a $50 ticket in the mail alleging that she had used a dog park without a permit. The ticket was based entirely on a Facebook posting that the woman had made, and the police immediately rescinded it, saying  that they do not monitor social media in search of potential lawbreakers.

It might be a crime to friend your boss if you live in Arkansas! Arkansas legislators are considering changing a 2013 law after Facebook informs them that the law may have inadvertently made it a crime for a boss and an employee to become Facebook friends.

Snapchat may have competition. According to the Los Angeles Times, Facebook prematurely released, then withdrew, a new mobile app called Slingshot that is intended to compete with Snapchat and permit users to send each other photo and video messages.

Is Twitter in trouble? Twitter’s leadership was thrown into disarray on June 12 after Ali Rowghani resigned suddenly as the company’s chief operating officer amid a dispute with Chief Executive Dick Costolo. Twitter’s stock has fallen about 42 percent this year as concerns have arisen that the company is not signing up enough new users.

Should you make social media rules for your marriage? More and more couples are sitting down with their lawyers before marriage to discuss a social media clause in their prenuptial agreement – covering what they can and cannot say or post about each other. These agreements appear to be enforceable in court if they are specific enough.

The CIA is on Twitter! The CIA has entered the realm of social media, setting up a Twitter presence and a Facebook account. There one can find, among other things, reflections on intelligence history and fun facts from the CIA World Factbook.

Can’t ask for personal social media account logins in Louisiana! 
On May 23, Louisiana became the latest state to enact a law prohibiting employers and public and private educational institutions from requiring applicants, employees, and students to provide access to their personal online accounts.

Every company would be well advised scrutinize their marketing practices on an ongoing basis to ensure that they do not inadvertently expose the company to risks under the Lanham Act. Two US Supreme Court cases decided this term could result in a substantial increase in the number of Lanham Act claims brought under that statute alleging “unfair competition” resulting from product labeling and marketing practices that are alleged to be false or misleading.

  • Lexmark International, Inc. v. Static Control Components, Inc., No. 12-873, slip op. (March 25, 2014), in which the Supreme Court broadly construed the Lanham Act to permit lawsuits by all companies alleging injuries that were proximately caused by false or misleading advertising or promotion, even if the plaintiff was not a direct competitor of the defendant and suffered only “collateral damage.”
  • Pom Wonderful LLC v. Coca-Cola Co., No. 12–761, slip op.  (June 12, 2014), the Court’s second Lanham Act case of the term,  in which it eliminated a potential safe harbor from Lanham Act claims for companies in regulated industries who complied fully with applicable regulations regarding the labeling and marketing of their products.

Interested in being social anonymously? It is harder than you think… Recently a variety of “private” media platforms have emerged. For years, social media platforms have facilitated (or even, in many cases, required) us to use our real identities, with the aim of building friendships and networks in the online world. But these new social media apps (such as “Secret,” “Whisper,” “Yik Yak”) are designed specifically to enable users to share posts anonymously.

“Anonymous” doesn’t necessarily mean anonymous. Even if users are not required to provide any form of contact details to use an anonymous app, the app is very likely to collect certain information that will help identify the user (e.g., the unique digital ID of the user’s phone, location information, etc.). Therefore, it could be be fairly easy to trace a user if required (e.g., by subpoena/court order). Indeed Secret’s Terms of Service state, “We may share information about you … in response to a request for information if we believe disclosure is in accordance with any applicable law, regulation or legal process, or as otherwise required by any applicable law, regulation or legal process.”

For more updates visit: http://www.sociallyawareblog.com

Will Congress Limit NSA Data Collection?

Do you know when and how the government can access your telephone records? Do you care? Do you worry about your personal privacy? Well, there is major legislation on the horizon that will affect how and when your data is collected and retained.

Image courtesy of cuteomatic.com
Image courtesy of cuteomatic.com

On May 22, 2014, the United States House of Representatives passed bill H.R. 3361, the USA Freedom Act, aimed at limiting the federal government’s ability to collect bulk phone records and also increasing transparency. This bill, supported by the President, received bipartisan support. It restricts the data collected from communications companies by the NSA and other intelligence agencies. One of the goals is to minimize the retention and dissemination of non-public data. The House’s approach to data retention is to have telecoms store the data, to be made available to the government, by request. The bill has no mandated retention period. Finally, the bill also extends certain provisions of the USA Patriot Act, scheduled to expire in 2015.

What will the Senate do? It has been almost a month since they’ve received the bill and it has not yet passed.  Senate Intelligence Committee chair Dianne Feinstein (D-Calif.) said that she wanted to find a way to get the USA Freedom Act (H.R. 3361) passed, though she would prefer that the government, rather than telecom companies, retain the responsibility for storing and analyzing data.

The European Court of Justice recently determined that their data retention law, which is similar to the House’s bill, violates the fundamental rights of citizens. How should this determination play into the U.S.’s data retention law? If its a violation of the fundamental rights–namely privacy–for European citizens, does it violate the fundamental rights of US citizens? How do you want any data collected by your telecom company stored and accessed?  The expiration of portions of the US Patriot Act, as well as the call for data retention, and surveillance reform in the wake of the Snowden leaks raise a lot of questions. Now is the time for the US government to pass legislation that both protects the privacy of citizens and aids in protecting national security.

Get involved in this debate!

For more information about this issue and how the European Court of Justice’s decision factor’s in the debate, read the article I published,  “Does Personal Privacy Matter? Developments in EU and US Data Retention Law” in the American Bar Association’s Information Security & Privacy News.

Make Sure to Change Your Privacy Settings on Facebook…Again!

Tired of changing your privacy settings on Facebook? Well… Sorry!  You need to do it again…  If you do not want Facebook to track your browsing both on and off their site and track the apps you use, change your settings!

argyllfreepress.com
argyllfreepress.com
Today, Facebook announced that it would begin targeting advertisements to users based on the websites they visit and apps that they use. In a blog post, the company explained that users can opt out of the web browser-based tracking through an online ad industry program and can also opt out of the app-based tracking through their smartphones’ privacy controls.

If you have to see ads while using Facebook, they might as well cater to your specific needs and likes, right? It’s seemingly harmless and most people do not have anything to hide. However, this kind of customization is a double edge sword. On one side you have the benefit of a tailored experience while on the other hand your private searching is being consumed by entities like Facebook. A more specific and more troubling concern is that children as young as 13 will be monitored… Are your teens thinking about the ramifications of having Facebook watch their every movement? Congress is promising to monitor the implications of this new advertising system and so should you. Your privacy and the privacy of your family is important! 

Privacy is the price of convenience. Decide which one matters to you most.

Will it be Hard to Register My Trademark?

Registered-Trade-mark-symbol
Photo from pinnacletms.com.au/difference-between-trademark-symbols/​

So you have great idea blog, business, product, brand, etc.! Now what?  ​How do you make sure you are protecting your asset?

Well, an important part of protecting your invention, product or business is protecting the name.  Start by​ outlining​ ​a strategic plan for trademarking your intellectual property. ​A very important part of that strategy is determining whether or not your proposed mark can be trademarked.

How can I​ ensure my mark is trademarkable? What is the likelihood for successfully trademarking this name? Should I consider changing the name to make sure that it can be trademarked? These are questions you should ask yourself, preferably while under the consult of an attorney. ​

O​nly the USPTO can make a final decision as to whether or not a mark is eligible for federal trademark registration. However, they have ​provided guidance on what terms can be trademarked and ways to make otherwise untrademarkable names trademarkable. This guidance is a great framework to use when determining if you can successfully trademark your name.


Trademark rights are designed to protect the consumer from confusion. Therefore, the overarching rule is the USPTO will not approve a trademark they think will cause consumer confusion. Here are a few things to consider to help you think about whether or not your mark may cause consumer confusion in the eyes of the USPTO. 


Originality
The first thing to know is the USPTO will not trademark a name that is already trademarked or similar to a mark that is already trademarked, in the same or similar classification. The USPTO wants consumers to be able to associate a specific set of goods or services to a mark so if two marks are confusingly similar and are associated to the same or similar goods or services it is not likely to receive a federal trademark registration.  A trademark clearance search is great tool to ensure that your mark does not infringe on the trademark rights of others. This search should scour federal and state registrations to ensure no one has already secured the same or similar trademark. Internet searches of businesses or brands operating with the mark that have not yet secured federal or state trademark protections are also very important because they may have common law trademark rights. Common law rights arise from actual use of a mark and may allow the common law user to successfully challenge a registration or application. It’s imperative to know all potential impediments.  Having a clearance search done by a trademark attorney during the planning stages of your new venture can help you avoid rebranding and the expenses therein, after you’ve already launched.

Also if you are starting a business you should check with your state’s business entity registration office to see if the name you’ve chosen is available for your entity name.

Distinctiveness
Trademark law requires that a mark be distinctive or unique such that it easily distinguishes a product or service from the product or services of others. The distinctiveness of a device can generally be categorized into one of five categories which fall along a spectrum of distinctiveness. From most distinctive to least distinctive, these categories are:

  • Fanciful – marks created for the sole purpose of being used with the product or service. This is the strongest type of mark. E.g., would be XEROX or KODAK,
  • Arbitrary – a common word which is used in connection with products or services unrelated to the dictionary meaning. E.g. APPLE for computers. Arbitrary marks are also immediately eligible for registration.
  • Suggestive – marks that suggest a quality or characteristic of the goods and services but requires imagination on the part of the consumer to identify the characteristic. E.g., MICROSOFT (suggestive of software for microcomputers)
  • Descriptive – ​​marks that merely describe the good or service. The mark likely uses the dictionary meaning of a works in connection with products or services directly related to that meaning. Unlike suggestive marks there is no imagination or creativity needed to identify the product or service. E.g., LEKTRONIIC was famously refused protection by the USPTO on ground of being descriptive for electronic goods.
  • Generic – the common name for the products or services in connection with which it is used, such as “salt” when used in connection with sodium chloride.
TM registration-table
Photo from http://www.patent-usa.com/trademark/


Devices that are fanciful, arbitrary, or suggestive are usually considered distinctive enough to function as trademarks. On the other hand, if a device is descriptive, the device can function as a trademark or service mark only if it has obtained secondary meaning. Generic devices can never be a trademark. A mark can become generic if the trademark becomes the generic name for the good or service. For example Escalator. ​ See my previous post “Trademark Holders Beware of the Generic Curse” for more details.

Figure out where on the spectrum your mark falls. This will help gauge your likelihood for success and how long the application process will take. The closer you are to not distinctive portion of the spectrum the more likely you will need to prove distinctiveness tot he USPTO. If you have not yet selected a name, keep these limits in mind as you create one.

A few additional tips…
​Claim Your Mark
Until you have secured a federal registration you cannot use the ® symbol, which indicates that the trademark is registered with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (“PTO”). However,  you can use the ™ symbol with the mark to identify it as a trademark, whether or not a federal trademark application has been filed. The ™ symbol can be used with marks for both goods and services, although some companies use SM (referring to a service mark) with a mark that is used for services as opposed to goods. These symbols put people on notice that you claim rights in the mark, although common law (a trademark mark rights acquired merely by using the mark) doesn’t give you all the rights and benefits of federal registration.
Get Help!
Consult an attorney when determining whether or not to file a trademark. This is a brief overview and does not shed light on all of the intricacies of the process. Registration of a trademark is a very fact specific process and your mark must be analyzed on the merits. This article is just designed to help you frame your thought process. Attorney’s are uniquely equipped to position a mark to be successful and know how to fight a denial using case-law and previous registrations to get a seemingly untrademarkable mark trademarked.
Good luck!!

 

Trademark Holders Beware of the Generic Curse

Trademarks are wonderful means for protecting your brand. You want your trademark to be pervasive and resonate in the minds of consumers. You want it to be apart of their everyday life! However, when a trademark becomes so common that it is used at the term for the item or service rather that the brand you run the risk of loosing your trademark because it is generic. Under the Trademark Act generic terms cannot be trademarks.  A generic term is a word that the relevant purchasing public understands primarily as the common name for a particular product or service.

What is kleenex?  If you said tissue, you’re incorrect it is actually a brand of tissue that has become so common it is often used as a generic term. Kleenex is lucky because the company fought and won to keep its trademark alive. However, there are a whole host of others that were not as lucky.  For example, escalator, originally a trademark of the Otis Elevator Company, or aspirin which is still a Bayer trademark name for acetylsalicylic acid in about 80 countries, including Canada and many countries in Europe, but declared generic in the U.S.

Recently the word “skew-ball” also came under scrutiny. Full Circle United, LLC (Full Circle) claims the word “skee-ball” is the common name for the game of skee-ball, which has been an American boardwalk and arcade pastime for over a century.  Full Circle, which organizes skee-ball competitions across the country, was sued by SBI, Inc., a manufacturer of skee-ball machines, and owner of the federal trademark registration of “skee-ball,” for infringement of the term “skee-ball.” Full Circle countered by filing its own complaint alleging that SBI has no rights in the word “skee-ball” because, just like many other marks that have come and gone, such as yo-yo, trampoline, and pilates, skee-ball is generic. This case is still being decided.

This phenomenon is hard to control because you want your brand to be popular but some ways to prevent genericizing a brand are:

A sign in a supermarket using "Jell-O" generically - Image from Wikipedia
A sign in a supermarket using “Jell-O” generically – Image from Wikipedia
  • Use the proper name for the good or service in conjunction with the trademark or brand name. For example, you’ll notice that Kleenex’s brand now reads “Kleenex brand Tissue”
  • Let the world know you have a registered trademark by using the appropriate symbols. Use the letter R enclosed within a circle, ® for federally registered marks and for an unregistered mark, use TM.
  • DO NOT use your trademark as a noun. For example: Put on a BAND-AID – NO! Put on a BAND-AID brand bandage – YES!
  • DO NOT use trademark as a verb or plural. Go XEROX the document – NO! Make a copy with the XEROX copier – YES! I need two Kleenexes – NO! I need two Kleenex tissues. – YES!
  • Police your trademark. Correct others misuse of your trademark
  • Educate the public especially authorized users, distributors, and anyone else consumers will believe have authority or knowledge about the brand.

Be proactive about preventing your brand from becoming a generic term. Although this phenomenon is a symptom of your success you want to avoid loosing your trademark

How Much of Your Data can Apple Hand to Law Enforcement?

We are all aware (or at least we should be) that our telecom providers are handing over our data to the police when necessary. Well have you ever wondered just how much and what it takes to get that data? iphone-privacy-2011-04-06-1302104043Apple posted their new guidelines describing what data the company can provide to law enforcement and the processes for requesting that data.

The document breaks it down into two basic types of data: information stored on Apple’s servers and information stored locally on iOS devices.  I have outlined the kinds of data and how they can be obtained in a chart below.

Essentially anything you’ve backed up to or stored on iCloud is available for Apple to provide to law enforcement, including connection logs and IP addresses you’ve used. Additionally a lot of the data associated with your Apple ID is available as well. Therefore, any information you’re providing Apple is available for them to pass along. This is something to consider when deciding if or what to back up on iCloud.  You may want to avoid backing up sensitive company data or private information on iCloud. Some information cannot be avoided, such as anything associated with your Apple ID.

Can they access data on my iOS device???

Yes. Apple can bypass security passcodes on our iOS devices to extract “certain categories of active data,” though it apparently cannot bypass that protection entirely. If provided with a valid search warrant, Apple can hand over SMS messages, pictures and videos, contacts, audio recordings, and your phone’s call history, but it can’t access e-mails, calendar entries, or information from third-party applications. Devices must be running iOS 4 or newer, must be “in good working order,” and must be provided directly to Apple’s headquarters along with an external storage drive twice the size of the iOS device’s internal storage.

Will I know if this is happening?

Maybe. The guidelines state that Apple will “notify its customers when their personal information is being sought in response to legal process except where providing notice is prohibited by the legal process itself.” Apple will also avoid notifying users if the company “believes that providing notice could create a risk of injury or death to an identifiable individual or group of individuals or in situations where the case relates to child endangerment,” though this is entirely up to Apple and not to the law enforcement agencies involved. These notification requirement will help prevent random and unfounded searches.

What is missing?

The policies and capabilities surrounding iCloud Keychain, iMessages and FaceTime calls are unclear and disputed. Apple claims iMessage & Facetime are encrypted but there is some speculation otherwise.

Is this unusual?

No, other tech companies have similar policies. For example, Google provides a similar “Transparency Report” outlining the types of data available to law enforcement. The notification policy is new and several other tech giants, including Facebook and Microsoft, have already indicated that they plan to expand their policies on notifying customers whose data has been requested by law enforcement

 

Where is the Data? Type of Data Means to Obtain Data Restrictions
Information stored on Apple Servers Data Associated with your Apple ID contact inormation obtainable with a subpoena or greater legal process
customer service records
transaction history both in store & online
iTunes gift card information
Data Associated with your iCloud Account connection logs & IP address used Any iCloud information that the user deletes cannot be accessed.
60 days of iCloud mail logs that “include records of incoming and outgoing communications such as time, date, sender e-mail addresses, and recipient e-mail addresses” e-mail logs require a court order or search warrant
any e-mail messages that the user has not deleted requires a search warrant
any other information that can be backed up to iCloud – As of this writing, this list includes contacts, calendars, browser bookmarks, Photo Stream photos, anything that uses the “documents and data” feature (which can include not just word processors but also photo and video apps, games, and data from other applications), and full device backups
Information stored locally on iOS devices SMS messages requires a search warrant – Devices must be running iOS 4 or newer, must be “in good working order,” and must be provided directly to Apple’s headquarters along with an external storage drive twice the size of the iOS device’s internal storage. Cannot access e-mails, calendar entries, or information from third-party applications
pictures and videos
contacts
audio recordings
phone’s call history